Diagnosis

REFERRING WOMEN AGED >70 YEARS FOR BMD ASSESSMENT INCREASES THE SUCCESS RATE OF IDENTIFYING OSTEOPOROSIS1

BMD is used for the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis. BMD is most often described as a T- or Z-score, both of which are units of standard deviation. The T-score describes the number of standard deviations by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected in young healthy individuals.2
WHO operational definitions of osteoporosis and osteopenia based on BMD T-score.3  
Diagnosis table
A wide variety of techniques is available to assess BMD. The most commonly used are based on X-ray absorptiometry of bone. DXA is the most widely used bone densitometric technique. It is versatile in the sense that it can be used to assess BMD of the whole skeleton as well as specific sites, including those most vulnerable to fracture.2
A recent update of the ESCEO guidelines states that women aged >65 years with a prior fragility fracture can be considered for osteoporosis treatment without the need for BMD assessment.4

Click here to learn about supported guidance on assessments of fracture risk and their application.
References:
BMD: bone mineral density; DXA: dual X-ray absorptiometry; ESCEO: European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis; WHO: World Health Organization.
  1. Blake GM, et al. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83:509–17.
  2. Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24:23–57.
  3. World Health Organization. WHO group on the assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health care level. Summary meeting report. 2007; Geneva.
  4. Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporos Int. 2019;30:3–44.

SMPC

The information contained in this site is for healthcare professionals only

I am a patient
I am a member of the public