PREVIOUS FRACTURE AND AGE ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT PREDICTIVE FACTORS FOR FRACTURES1,2
Additionally, fracture incidence is observed to be higher in women than men.3
There are also other independent risk factors associated with fracture and osteoporosis:4–6
- Low estrogen levels
- Low testosterone levels (including in hormone ablative therapy for prostate cancer)
- Family history of osteoporosis
- Low body mass index
- Dietary calcium deficiency
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Alcohol abuse
- Cigarette smoking
- Underlying diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, or rheumatoid arthritis
- High-dose glucocorticoid therapy
While previous fracture and age are the two most important factors in risk prognosis, BMD is used as an indicator for risk of fracture and to identify osteoporosis.
to read more on the diagnosis of osteoporosis.
BMD: bone mineral density.
- van Geel TA, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:99–102.
- Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12:989–95.
- Bliuc D, et al. JAMA. 2009;301:513–21.
- Lewiecki EM. Cleve Clin J Med. 2009;76:457–66.
- World Health Organization. WHO Group on the prevention and management of osteoporosis. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2003;921:1–206.
- Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24:23–57.